I was reading through my backlog and noticed too close by incidents. A BGP hijack on 30th September from Telstra and Tokyo Stock Exchange outage on 2nd Oct. At the end of the day, small mistakes/errors (on purpose or not) can cause massive impact (depending on your point of view). For BGP, RPKI is the security framework to make sure the advertised routes belong to the real owners. Yeah, quick summary. But at the end of the day, not all Internet providers are using RPKI, and even if you use it, you can make mistakes. This is better than nothing. For the exchanges, thinking that a piece of hardware can cause a stop to a 6 trillion $ market is crazy. And it seems is just a 350 servers system. That tells me that you dont need the biggest system to hold the biggest value and you will always hit a problem no matter how safe/resilience is your design/implementation/etc. Likely I am making this up and I need to review the book, but one of the conclusions I took from it, via Godel, it doesn’t matter how many statements you use to declare your (software) system, you can always find a weakness (false statement).